Medical description: Macrobid is a highly soluble in water antibacterial drug used primarily to treat acute and chronic bladder infections. The medicine is considered one of the safest and can be used in infants starting from one month of age. The length of the treatment course in acute infection is 7 days. Chronic infections are treated with Macrobid for 3 to 12 months. The daily dosage for both kids and adult must not exceed 400 mg in a 7-day acute infection treatment course. In prolonged treatment in kids, the daily dosage must not exceed 100 mg.
Synonyms: Uritop, Alfuran, Cyantin, Cystit, Furadantin, Furadonin, Furan, Furina, Nitrex, Nitrofan, Phenurin, Urantoin, Welfurin
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Macrobid is an antibacterial drug from the class of Nitrofuran antibiotics. The medicine is used since 1953 to treat various infections of respiratory tract, and urinary tract induced by both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria such as E. coli, Coagulase negative staphylococci, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus agalactiae, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri, and others. The medicine is not used for the treatment of infections caused by Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Proteus, and Pseudomonas because most of their strains are resistant to the drug’s active substance. The drug is highly soluble in water; therefore, it is mostly effective for the bladder infections and less effective when penetration in tissues is required. Due to its broad-spectrum bacteriostatic properties and high bioavailability, the medicine is included in the World Health Organizations’ List of Essential medicines meaning that it plays an important role in each country’s healthcare system. Worth noting that the medicine is named differently in every country depending on the manufacturer. Online, the drug can be found looking for Generic Macrobid or Generic Nitrofurantoin. The cost of a dosage of the drug in the USA is $1,5, in other countries and at the online pharmacies one dosage costs from $0,17 to $0,5.
Macrobid – Mechanism of action
The active substance of the drug slows down the growth and replication of the bacteria by damaging existing bacteria DNA and RNA. The effect of the medicine to the bacterial cells is complex and multidimensional, preventing resistance development in bacteria.
Macrobid – Pharmacokinetics
Macrobid provides equal effect when taken with, before or after meal. Its availability or amount of the active substance reaching the infection site is 90%. Absorption speed of the medicine from the gastrointestinal drug depends on the size of crystals used for the drug creation. The size of the crystals in indicated in instructions to the drug.
The drug is mostly metabolized in liver and at some extent in muscle tissue. Macrobid is able to penetrate blood-brain barrier and placenta. Most of the medicine is excreted in urine (about 40%), minimal amounts are excreted in feces, bile, and breast milk. The maximum concentration of the medicine in the urine after the intake of 100 mg is observed in one hour and can reach up to 200 μg/ml. The concentration in blood plasma is less than 1 μg/ml. The effect of the medicine is provided when the concentration in urine is 32 μg/ml or more. Macrobid poorly penetrates the tissues and is mostly used for bladder infections rather than kidney inflammations.
Release form of Macrobid
Regardless of the manufacturer, Macrobid is supplied in pills, suspension for solution preparation, and capsules of 25mg, 50mg, and 100mg.
Dosages of Macrobid
Acute infections are treated with 50 to 100 mg of Macrobid taken orally 4 times a day for 7 days. Even if symptoms fade quicker, the treatment course must be completed. For the prophylaxis of cystitis, a single dosage of 50 to 100 mg is taken before bedtime for 3-12 months depending on the patient’s general health condition and severity of the infectious process.
Macrobid can be administered to children over one month of age in the daily dosage of 5-7 mg in form of suspension per kilogram of body weight divided in 4 intakes. Cystitis prophylaxis in children is treated administering 1-2 mg in form of suspension per kilogram of weight daily in 1-2 intakes.
When Macrobid is prescribed
Even though Macrobid has a broad-spectrum activity, it is mostly used for urinary tract infections such as cystitis, pyelitis, urethritis, and rarely pyelonephritis when other antibiotics are contraindicated. Since the medicine is inactive against certain bacteria strains, it s advised to make susceptibility study first in order to be sure that the bacteria responsible for the inflammation is sensible to the drug.
Macrobid is also prescribed as prevention therapy in urological surgery or invasive examination.
Interactions of Macrobid with other medicines
The use of Macrobid with certain medicines may reduce the effect of either of them or result in negative, sometimes, irreversible health conditions. For example, the medicine should not be taken with nalidixic acid and the antacids comprising magnesium trisilicate or any other products containing these substances as they significantly reduce the bacteriostatic effect of the antibiotic.
Macrobid is also incompatible with fluoroquinolones. It must not be used with the medicines that block tubular secretion as they reduce the excretion of the medicine in urine and greatly increase its toxicity.
Contraindications for Macrobid use
First of all, as any other medicine, Macrobid is contraindicated to people with pronounced intolerance of the drug’s active or additional substances. Children below one month of age, people suffering from severe renal insufficiency, chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis, oliguria, anuria also must not be administered Macrobid. The medicine can be taken by pregnant women, but not near delivery. The intake of the medicine must be stopped at least three months before the delivery. Since Macrobid is excreted in breast milk, it must not be taken during lactation period.
Side effects of Macrobid
All medicines along with the positive effect are potentially harmful due to the side effects they cause and Macrobid is not an exception. The most severe side effects may occur if the medicine is taken regardless of the allergy to the medicine identified. Common side effects that occur in about 3% of the patients include: general discomfort, weakness, cough, chest pain, fever, chills, hives, joint or muscle pain, skin rash, itching, troubled breathing, blood in stools, headache, dizziness, and others.
If adverse reactions occur, the use of the medicine must be stopped immediately. The side effects tend to worsen in accumulation of the medicine in the body. Therefore, it is crucial to notice their slightest manifestation and seek medical assistance at once.
Macrobid is an antibacterial drug from the class of Nitrofuran antibiotics. The medicine is used since 1953 mostly to treat urinary tract infections.
Treatment of the urinary tract can be performed using either generally prescribed antibiotics for the treatment of the most common infections or by the specific medicines. The specific medicines we are talking about are those antibacterial drugs that are highly soluble in water. Due to the high solubility of the medicines referred to as Generic Macrobid, their concentration in urine is several times higher than of other antibiotics. Thus, they literally wash out the infection from the bladder. Unfortunately, Generic Macrobid is not good at penetrating tissues, so it’s less effective in the treatment of kidneys or intra-abdominal abscesses. If you suffer from acute or chronic cystitis, pyelitis, and urethritis or have to undergo a urological surgery, most probably your doctor will recommend you to use Macrobid or its generics.
How to take Generic Macrobid?
In an acute bladder infection, an adult patient is usually recommended to take 50 or 100 mg of the drug in four intakes during 7 days. The treatment must not be stopped or interrupted otherwise the infection can develop resistance and further treatment will require the use of bigger dosages of a more potent drug. In a case of chronic cystitis, the treatment course may take from 3 to 12 months during which a patient needs to take 50-100 mg of Generic Macrobid once a day before sleep.
Considering that the medicine is relatively safe, it can be used in kids over one month of age. The dosage is calculated for every child individually based on the body weight. The amount of the medicine per intake must not exceed 5-7 mg per kilogram of the child’s body weight. During the day, four dosages are taken. The maximum daily dosage must not exceed 400 mg. In prophylaxis of bladder infections or in chronic infections, the dosage is 1-2 mg per kilogram of child’s weight taken orally in 1 or 2 intakes. The daily dosage must not exceed 100 mg.
If you or the child you plan to treat suffers from any other conditions or use any other medicines, you need to consult your doctor whether in this case Generic Macrobid is not contraindicated.
Where to buy the drug?
You can buy a brand version of the medicine at your local drugstore, but only after getting a prescription from your doctor. Otherwise, you can buy Generic Macrobid online. Note that with the latter option you can also save up to a half of the treatment course cost.
If you are not sure how to check the reliability of an online drugstore and find out if the drug is what you were looking for, follow our tips:
- The optimal way is to use one of the links from our website. We check the pharmacies we work with, so you can be relieved from a share of your tasks.
- Check the dosage per pill or concentration of the powder for suspension preparation for kids. If you cannot see this info on the product page, make sure to clarify it with the online pharmacy managers.
- Check the expiry date for the drug. It is especially important if you buy Generic Macrobid pills for a long treatment course for 3 or more months. Again, if you don’t see this information, do not hesitate to ask the pharmacy’s staff.
- Since the drug may cause adverse reactions, we recommend not ordering too many pills or powder for suspension preparation at once. Opt for the amount sufficient for a month of the treatment and order it again if you need more medicines later. This can also help you avoid trouble with the customs authorities who may suspect you in illegal drug selling since you order too many pills at once.
- Remember, your health is your responsibility, do not neglect the instruction for Generic Macrobid use, observe the dosages and take necessary measures if any side effects or overdose occurs.