Medical description: Minomycin is of the most effective and broadest spectrum semi-synthetic antibiotic from the group of tetracyclines. The medicine is used to treat a variety of infectious diseases from sinusitis to Lyme disease. It is a second choice antibiotic drug for the majority of infections when penicillin is prescribed. If a patient is allergic to penicillin, Minomycin is prescribed. The daily dosage of the medicine is 100-200 mg. The length of the treatment course may vary from 5 days to half of a year depending on the infection treated.
Synonyms: Minoz, Arestin, Dynacin, Klinomycin, Vectrin
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Minomycin is a semi-synthetic antibiotic from the group of Tetracyclines. It is the broadest spectrum antibiotic of the group, including activity against meningococci, used to treat various bacterial infections as well as Rickettsialpox and Amoebiasis. As well as Doxycycline, Minomycin is a long-acting type tetracycline, i.e. it has longer half-life so the concentration of the drug in serum is 2-4 greater than of other tetracyclines. In other words, its antibacterial effect is much more prolonged so the dosages of the drug are lower than those taken of other antibiotics from the group. Despite the advantages of the drug, it has to be taken carefully because of specific side effects and to prevent the emergence of resistance in the microorganisms being treated.
Minomycin was first synthesized in 1966 from the natural Tetracyclines by Lederle Laboratories, a company from the American Cyanamid conglomerate. The medicine was first marketed as Minocin. Currently, the patent for the medicine is expired, so the drug is marketed under numerous trademarks such as Minostad, Arestin, Minoderm, Dynacin, Akamin, and many others. Online, the medicines which have the same composition and properties, can be found under a generic name Generic Minomycin used by online pharmacies to facilitate the search.
Minomycin - Mechanism of action
As other tetracyclines, Minomycin provides bacteriostatic effect on the cells of the sensitive pathogens through reversible inhibition of protein synthesis. Minomycin passes directly through the lipid bilayer of the bacterial membrane, then binds to the 30S-ribosomal subunit and blocks the attachment of tRNA to it, thereby preventing the synthesis of bacterial proteins. This stops further growth and replication of the bacteria.
Pharmacokinetics of Minomycin
After the intake of 100 mg of Minomycin in capsules both on an empty stomach or after meal, the maximum serum concentrations are registered in 1 to 4 hours. The average concentration registered is 3.5 µg/ml. The half-life of the medicine ranges from 11 to 22 hours.
The registered half-life of the active substance in people with liver insufficiency is the same as in patients with healthy liver. Patients with kidney insufficiency are fully cleaned of the drug in 18 to 69 hours.
The release form of Minomycin
Regardless under which name Minomycin is marketed, it is supplied in 50 mg and 100 mg gelatin capsules.
Dosages of Minomycin
The daily dosage of Minomycin for adults is 100-200 mg taken orally regardless of the time of meal. Children older than 8 years are administered 4 miligram per kilogram of body weight during the first intake during the first day and 2 miligram per kilogram of body weight every 12 hours.
When Minomycin is prescribed
As well as other tetracycline antibiotics, Minomycin is commonly used in the treatment of acne. However, over the time some of the bacteria causing acne vulgaris have developed inherited resistance to the group of antibiotics so the treatment may be unsuccessful in some patients.
Though the medicine is considered effective against the common bacteria attacking urinary tract, it is rarely used in urology. Even being the most lipid-soluble and providing the greatest penetration into the prostate, due to its solubility in water its concentrations in the urine are much lower than of the other tetracyclines.
If the tests show that the disease is caused by the pathogens sensible to the Minomycin active substance, the medicine can be used to treat upper and lower respiratory tract infections, ornithosis (acute infectious disease transmitted from birds), psittacosis, Reiter's syndrome, trachoma, Lyme disease, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and others.
The drug is not used for the treatment of meningococcal infection and any infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus.
Minomycin is indicated to patients who are hypersensitive to penicillin as an alternative drug for the following infections: gonorrhea, listeriosis (an infectious disease of animals, transmitted to people) actinomycoses (fungal infections), infections caused by Clostridium.
Interactions with other medicines
All tetracyclines are known to suppress plasma prothrombin activity. Therefore, patients taking anticoagulant medicines need to use a reduced dosage of Minomycin.
Minomycin should not be taken at the same time as penicillin as it decreases the effect of the latter.
The absorption of the medicine is decreased when it is used in combination with antacids.
Simultaneous use of Minomycin or other antibiotic from the group of Tetracyclines with methoxyflurane may result in fatal renal toxicity.
The use of the medicine has shown effect on reducing oral contraceptives effectiveness.
The medicine must not be used along or short after the treatment course with isotretinoin or vice versa because of the increased risk of pseudotumor cerebri.
Contraindications for Minomycin use
The medicine is contraindicated to people with allergic reaction to any of the tetracycline antibiotics or any component of the medicine. It is also contraindicated to people suffering from porphyria, severe hepatic and renal failure, leucopenia, systemic lupus erythematosus, lactase deficiency, lactose intolerance, glucose-galactose malabsorption.
Children younger than 8 years (the period of tooth development), pregnant or breastfeeding women must not take the medicine as well.
Adverse effects of Minomycin
As any other drug, Minomycin may cause side effects of different severity. Though it is the most lipid-soluble antibiotic from its group with the highest penetration to the brain and prostate, it has the most number of side effects from the central nervous system unlike less soluble drugs from Tetracyclines group.
The most common side effects that occur from the medicine use are diarrhea, upset stomach, nausea, dizziness, fatigue, weakness, etc.
More serious possible side effects are vertigo, toxic epidermal necrolysis, dyspnea (difficulty breating), bronchospasm, exacerbation of asthma, leukopenia, pancytopenia, seizures, and others.
Minomycin is an antibiotic from the group of Tetracyclines. It is the broadest spectrum antibiotic of the group, i.e. effective against more bacteria.
Minomycin and its analogs known as Generic Minomycin are the most effective tetracycline antibiotics with the broadest spectrum and level of lipid-solubility used to treat a variety of infectious diseases. However, along with its doubtless advantages, the medicine is also believed to be the most affecting the nervous system drug from the Tetracyclines group. Nevertheless, its positive effects in the treatment of hardly eliminated infections make the medicine a popular choice for infections of various localizations. It is believed though that Generic Minomycin is not the best choice for the treatment of urinary tract infections because of its solubility in water and reduced levels in the urine in comparison with other tetracyclines and because it has poor urinary excretion.
Generic Minomycin: indications for use
Generic Minomycin is mostly used to treat skin infections such as acne vulgaris. Other indications for its use include respiratory tract infections, arthritis, immune suppression in asthma, prophylaxis and treatment of pneumonia, rickettsial diseases, amoebiasis, spotted fever, typhus fever, typhoid fever, tick fever, and other diseases induced by the pathogens sensible to the active substance of the medicine.
Generic Minomycin dosage and form of issue
Generic Minomycin is released in form of gelatin capsules of 50 mg and 100 mg of the active substance.
General dosage of the medicine for adults varies from 100 to 200 milligrams a day. The dosage for children over eight years of age is calculated as follows: 4 miligrams per kilogram of body weight for the first intake of a day and 2 miligrams per kilogram of body weight every following 12 hours. The length of the treatment course is prescribed by a doctor for each case individually and can be from 5 days to several months.
Patients with liver or kidney dysfunction and those who use anticoagulants need a reduction of the daily dosage.
Contraindications for Generic Minomycin use
The main contraindication for the medicine use is an individual hypersensitivity or allergy to Minomycin’s main substance or any other tetracycline antibiotic. Other contraindications include pregnancy, breastfeeding, age below 8 years, hepatic failure, renal failure, lupus, leucopenia, lactose intolerance, lactase deficiency, glucose-galactose malabsorption.
The medicine is also contraindicated to be used along with penicillin, antacids, methoxyflurane, and isotretinoin. Generic Minomycin as well reduces the efficiency of birth control pills. Therefore, in time of treatment it’s preferable to do not opt for oral and other hormonal contraceptives.
Generic Minomycin becomes toxic after the expiration date unlike other medicines that lose their potency. High toxicity of the expired medicine may lead to fatal renal failure.
Possible side effects of Generic Minomycin
All medicines, especially antibiotics may provide a variety of adverse effects of different severity. The most common ones are those from the part of digestive system such as indigestion, abdominal pains, diarrhea, flatulence, nausea, and others. Other common side effects include fatigue, dizziness, headaches, and so on. Such side effects of Generic Minomycin are considered non-life-threatening and tend to fade after the termination of the medicine use. However, more severe side effects such as dyspnea (troubled breathing), arrhythmia, toxic epidermal necrolysis, vertigo, interstitial nephritis, anaphylactic reactions, etc require urgent medical assistance.
Severe side effects are rare in the use of Generic Minomycin, though you have to be ready to take the necessary measures if they occur.