Medical description: Ofloxacin is a second-generation antibiotic drug from the group of the fluoroquinolones. It was first used in 1982 and still is used for the treatment of various infections in adults. It is contraindicated to children, patients with epilepsy or prone to seizures, disorders of central nervous system, and to pregnant or breastfeeding women. The general dosage of the medicine is 200-400 mg of Ofloxacin a day in two intakes for 7-10 days. In liver or kidneys dysfunction, the dosage is cut in two or three, depending on the severity of the condition.
Synonyms: Euflox, Eufox, Offmark, Woflox, Akilen, Baccidal, Bactocin, Danoflox, Effexin, Exocin, Flobacin, Flodemex, Flotavid, Flovid, Floxal, Floxil, Floxstat, Fugacin, Inoflox, Kinflocin, Kinoxacin, Liflox, Loxinter, Marfloxacin, Medofloxine, Mergexin, Novecin, Nufafloqo, O-Flox, Obide, Occidal, Ocuflox, Ofcin, Oflin, Oflocee, Oflocet, Oflocin, Oflodal, Oflodex, Oflodura, Oflox, Ofloxin, Ofus, Operan, Orocin, Otonil, Pharflox, Praxin, Puiritol, Qinolon, Qipro, Quotavil, Rilox, Sinflo, Tabrin, Taravid, Tariflox, Tarivid, Telbit, Tructum, Viotisone, Zanocin
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Ofloxacin is an antibiotic drug, also referred to as antibacterial drug, obtained synthetically. The medicine is included in the group of fluoroquinolone antibiotics of second generation. The medicine was first patented in 1982 in Europe and only 8 years later upon the approval of the FDA in the United States. The medicine is sold under a variety of names around the world and in the USA. Till 2009, the patented name for Ofloxacin in the USA had been Floxin, but since the patent has already expired, it is manufactured and sold under a dozen of names. Besides the variety of names, the medicine also comes in diverse forms. Primarily, oral tablets and intravenous infusions of Ofloxacin are used. However, when topical application is considered effective, eye drops and ear drops can be used. The drug is active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Moxifloxacin is a racemic mixture, i.e. it consists of identical amounts of left- and right-handed enantiomers of a chiral molecule, which are levofloxacin and dextrofloxacin.
Ofloxacin - Mechanism of action
The medicine inhibits DNA gyrase, a type II topoisomerase, and topoisomerase IV. In other words, it inhibits the enzyme responsible for bacterial DNA stabilization and further cells multiplication.
Pharmacokinetics of Ofloxacin
The bioavailability of the medicine in oral intake reaches 98%. The intake with the meal may inhibit the time of absorption but in generally does not affect bioavailability percent. Maximum concentration of Ofloxacin in serum is from 1 to 6,9 mg/l. It is reached in 1-2 hours after the intake and depends on the dosage taken. It is well distributed throughout the tissues and organs and is metabolized in liver. The half-life of Ofloxacin is from 4,5 —7 regardless of the dosage. It is primarily excreted in urine - 75—90 % of unchanged medicine is cleared. However, it is also excreted in feces – from 4 to 8% and in insignificant amounts in bile.
The release form of Ofloxacin
Ofloxacin is supplied in the following dosages for oral intake in capsules and pills: 200 mg ; 300 mg ; 400 mg . In vials for intravenous infusion it is supplied in 40 mg/ml; 20 mg/ml; 4 mg/ml dosages.
Dosages of Ofloxacin
The dosages of the medicine are chosen individually for every patient depending on the localization of infection, severity of the infection, susceptibility of the bacteria, general health condition of the patient and absence or presence of liver and kidney dysfunctions.
General recommendations for adults are the following: 200-400 mg of Ofloxacin a day divided in two intakes for 7-10 days. The dosage of 400 mg can be used in a single morning intake. In gonorrhea, this fashion of intake is preferable. The maximum daily dosage is 800 mg.
In liver dysfunction, the maximum daily dosage is 400 mg. In the dysfunction of kidneys, the daily dosage depends on the creatinine clearance: in CCr 50-20ml/min the maximum dosage is 200 mg a day either in one or two intakes, in CCr less than 20ml/min the dosage is 200 mg every 48 hours. In hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis the dosage is 100 mg every 24 hours.
The pills are taken with a full glass of water without chewing before or during a meal. The length of the treatment course depends on the sensibility of the bacteria and clinical picture. The treatment must not be stopped for 3 days after the disappearance of symptoms and complete normalization of temperature.
In general, the treatment of salmonellosis requires 7-8 days of the medicine intake, uncomplicated lower urinary tract infections require 3-5 days of treatment.
When Ofloxacin is prescribed
Ofloxacin is prescribed in the following conditions if the bacteria that caused it was found to be susceptible to the active ingredient of the drug:
- Respiratory tract infections (bronchitis, pneumonia);
- Infection of upper respiratory tract (sinusitis, pharyngitis, otitis media, laryngitis, tracheitis);
- Infectious and inflammatory diseases of the abdominal cavity and biliary tract (with the exception of bacterial enteritis);
- Kidney infection (pyelonephritis), urinary tract infections (cystitis, urethritis), pelvic organs (endometritis, salpingitis, oophoritis, cervicitis, parameters, prostatitis), genitals (colpitis, orchitis, epididymitis), gonorrhea, chlamydia;
- Meningitis, septicemia (only intravenous administration);
- Prevention of infections in patients with impaired immune status (including neutropenia);
- Infectious and inflammatory diseases of the skin, soft tissues, bones, joints.
Interactions of Ofloxacin with other medicines
The medicine is compatible with the following infusion solutions: an isotonic sodium chloride solution, Ringer's solution, 5% fructose solution, and 5% dextrose solution.
Antacids or drugs containing aluminum, calcium, magnesium or salts of iron decrease the absorption of Ofloxacin and should be taken 2 hours before or after the antibiotic intake.
In simultaneous intake with theophylline, the dosage of the latter should be reduced as Ofloxacin lowers its clearance by 25%.
Cimetidine, furosemide, methotrexate, and drugs that block tubular secretion increase the concentration of Ofloxacin in blood plasma.
In combined use with Glibenclamide, it is necessary to control blood glucose levels as ofloxacin increases glibenclamide concentration in plasma.
When used with vitamin K antagonists, it is necessary to control blood coagulation.
The use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), derivatives of nitroimidazole and methylxanthines, with Ofloxacin the risk of neurotoxic effects increases.
In simultaneous use with glucocorticoids (GCS), the risk of tendon rupture, particularly in elderly people, increases.
Drugs alkalizing the urine (carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, citrates, sodium bicarbonate) when combined with Ofloxacin increase the risk of crystalluria and nephrotoxic effects.
Contraindications for Ofloxacin use
The medicine is contraindicated to people with hypersensitivity to the drug, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, epilepsy (including history), lowering of the convulsive threshold (including after craniocerebral trauma, stroke, or inflammation of the central nervous system); age below 18 years, pregnancy, lactation.
Ofloxacin should be used with caution in cerebral arteriosclerosis, cerebral circulatory disorders (history), chronic renal failure, and organic lesions of the central nervous system.
Adverse effects of Ofloxacin
In general, Ofloxacin is well tolerated. The side effects it may cause are similar to those common for all antibiotics: indigestion, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, and so on. Usually, even if the occur, they are mildly pronounced and do not require a special treatment. However, some severe side effects may occur such as tendon damage or peripheral neuropathy. In order to avoid them, make sure to take the medicine under your doctor supervision and follow the instructions strictly.
Ofloxacin is an antibiotic drug, also referred to as antibacterial drug, obtained synthetically.
The medicine was first patented in 1982.
Ofloxacin is an antibiotic drug used for the treatment of infection of different localization. For example, it is released in form of eye drops and ear drops for topical treatment.
However, the most widespread and prescribed form of Ofloxacin is an oral tablet.
Ofloxacin is a synthetic medicine first made in Europe in 1982. In the USA, the drug was approved in 1990. Currently, it is used all over the world and can be found under the hundreds of trade names. If you want to compare the prices and buy cheaper medicine with the same effect, you need to look for Generic Ofloxacin.
What is Generic Ofloxacin?
As we have already said before, Ofloxacin was first synthesized outside the USA. So the drug sold in the USA is literally a copy of the one discovered. Surprisingly, the original medicine costs less than the drug sold in the USA, but the medicines referred to as Generic Ofloxacin are cheaper even if they were the original drugs. This difference in prices occurs due to the government regulations, taxes, and high operational and advertising costs for the pharmaceutical companies on the U.S. market. However, if you have an ability to buy the same drug cheaper, why would you need to pay for all these expenses not related to the quality of the drug? Unfortunately, cheaper versions of the drug or Generic Ofloxacin are not available at your local pharmacies. Moreover, you cannot buy any antibiotic drug in the USA without a prescription. The only possible way to save is to buy Generic Ofloxacin online.
Tips on how to buy the best Generic Ofloxacin
Look for a reliable online drug store with lots of reviews that look genuine. Compare the prices for the drug and settle for the average rather than the lowest. When you have already chosen the pharmacy, make sure to check the dosage per pill, expiry date, and number of pills in the package. If you cannot find this information on the page of Generic Ofloxacin, ask customer support managers. This way you will find out the information you need and assess the willingness of the drugstore to help you with the choice and purchase process.
General dosages of Generic Ofloxacin and safety notice
Before starting the use of the medicine, we strongly recommend you to consult your doctor and tell him about all the conditions you have or medicines you take. Read the list of contraindications by yourself, maybe you forgot to tell your doctor about something.
If you already use the medicine, be attentive to any symptoms. If you feel any discomfort during the treatment course and think that it may be related to Generic Ofloxacin, seek medical assistance and stop using the medicine.
Observe the prescribed or generally recommended dosage. If you missed the dose, take the drug as soon as you remembered. If the next intake is scheduled soon, skip the missed dosage and take only a scheduled one in order to avoid overdose. If overdose still occurs, drink plenty of water and in any signs of side effects such as troubled breathing, chest pain, etc., call the emergency.
General dosages of Generic Ofloxacin for adults are: 200-400 mg daily divided in two intakes for 7 to 10- day treatment course. In gonorrhea treatment, the single dosage of 400 mg is taken in the morning.
The use of the medicine in children is contraindicated. People with liver or kidney dysfunction need a dosage adjustment based on the analysis of the organs performance. The dosage is adjusted by the doctor only. It can be cut in 2 or even in 3. The intervals between the intakes also can be increased.
Remember that this article is for information only and consists of general recommendations though every individual case requires a doctor’s assessment.