Medical description: Rifadin is an antibiotic from the group of rifamycins based on the active substance Rifampicin. It is primarily used in combined treatment of tuberculosis, leprosy, Meningococcal disease, abscesses and legionella. Individual use of the medicine may cause bacterial resistance to the therapy.
The medicine is manufactured in form of capsules of 150 or 300 mg for oral use and solutions for intravenous infusions in vials of 600 mg.
The medicine is prohibited to be taken in intolerance of any rifamycins, along with certain antiviral drugs, and in severe liver or kidney dysfunction.
Synonyms: Archidyn, Rfamipicin, Rifagen, Rifaldazin, Rifaldin, Rifampicin, Rifamycin, Rifaprodin, Rifoldin, Riforal, Rimactan, Rimactin, Rimazid, Rofact, Tubocin
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Rifadin is the medicine based on the active substance called Rifampicin. It is an antibiotic used for a wide spectrum of serious, life-threatening bacteria-induced illnesses including leprosy (Hansen's disease), tuberculosis, and legionella. Rifadin is also commonly used to treat inactive meningitis along with other antibiotics such as pyrazinamide, isoniazid, ethambutol, and streptomycin in a complex therapy.
The medicine is usually used with other antibiotics because Rifampicin resistance commonly occurs even within a short period of treatment when the drug is used individually.
History of the drug: how the active ingredient was found
In 1957, Italian pharmacologists Piero Sensi and Maria Teresa Timbal discovered a new bacterium found in the samples of soil brought for research from a pine forest on the French Riviera. The bacterium had drawn the interest of the researchers due to its ability to produce a new class of molecules with antibiotic activity. After two years of clinical trials, the researchers were able to show a stable semisynthetic product. The new molecule that has shown amazing efficiency and good tolerability in living organisms was called “rifampicin” (the first part of the name is the reference to the favorite movie of scientists called “Rififi”). The first medicine called Rifampicin was sold in 1971.
Nowadays, the medicines based on the formula are sold all over the world. They have an identical formula but bear different names. For example, in the USA and the UK it is marketed as Rifadin, in France as Rifadine, in India R-Cinex 600, in Germany as Eremfat, etc.
Rifadin - Mechanism of action
Rifampicin, the active substance of the medicine, suppresses the synthesis of bacterial DNA-dependent RNA by suppressing bacterial DNA-dependent RNA polymerase.
The trials show that Rifadin ties to the bacteria RNA polymerase at a place neighboring the active center of RNA polymerase, thus blocking the synthesis of bacterial RNA by physically stopping the formation of the phosphodiester bond in its backbone.
Chemical properties of Rifadin
Rifadin is a semisynthetic antibiotic. It is obtained in production as a red-brown crystalline powder which is mildly soluble in neutral pH, but well soluble in chloroform. The chemical formula of Rifadin is C43H58N4O12.
The medicine can be administered either orally in a form of capsules or intravenously. When taken in capsules, Rifadin’s top concentration in plasma occurs in 2-4 hours after the intake. Meals right before or after the medicine intake significantly reduces the absorption and, therefore, reduce its effect in fighting the bacteria. The use of other antituberculosis antibiotic medicine, 4-aminosalicylic acid, also significantly reduces the absorption and effect of the medicine though the medicines are usually prescribed to be used in the same treatment plan. In order to preserve the action of Rifadin, it is advised to take the medicines at least 12 hours apart.
The medicine is excreted through urine (30%) and feces (60-65%). The changed color of urine sometimes is also used to assess the quality of absorption of the medicine – the more the color is changed in comparison with that before the medicine use, the less absorption takes place.
When administered intravenously, the medicine cannot be given as injections. Instead, 30-minute infusions are prescribed. Infusions contribute to the increased concentration of the medicine in the whole body, with the top concentration of the drug at the end of a 30-minute infusion.
The release form of Rifadin
Rifadin and other identical medicines marketed under different brand names are released in form of capsules for oral use with the dosage of 150 mg or 300 mg and in solution for intravenous therapy in dosage from 300 mg to 600 mg with additional substances such as sodium formaldehyde sulfoxylate 10 mg, and sodium hydroxide to adjust pH of the patient’s blood.
Dosages of Rifadin
The medicine is taken in combination with other antibiotics (isoniazid, and pyrazinamideand) to avoid development of bacteria resistance to Rifadin.
The advised dosage of Rifadin for adults is 10 milligrams per kilogram of the patient’s body weight in a single daily administration. Maximum daily dosage is 600 milligrams a day taken orally or intravenously.
For children, the dosage of the medicine is 10-20 milligrams per kilogram of the patient’s body weight and no more than 600 milligrams a day taken orally or intravenously through a drip.
When to take
Taking into account that food prevents optimal absorption of Rifadin and respectively lessens its effectiveness, the doctors recommend using the medicine when taken orally on an empty stomach with one full glass of water either one hour before meals or two hours after meals.
Rifadin is contraindicated to patients with hypersensitivity to rifampin or any of the components of the drug. It is also contraindicated to be used with the following medicines:
- Ritonavir-boosted saquinavir
Rifadin can cause a list of side effects:
- Gastrointestinal: heartburn, jaundice, anorexia, vomiting, epigastric distress, nausea, flatulence, cramps, and diarrhea
- Liver: abnormalities in liver function (increased bilirubin, etc.), hepatitis or a shock-like syndrome with hepatic involvement
- Hematologic: thrombocytopenia, cerebral hemorrhage, leukopenia, decreased hemoglobin, and hemolytic anemia,
- Central Nervous System: fever, headache, sleepiness, fatigue, dizziness, ataxia, inability to concentrate, behavioral changes, mental confusion, muscular weakness, pains in extremities
- Eyes: blurred vision
- Endocrine: menstrual disturbances, adrenal insufficiency
- Dermatologic: flushing, itching
- Renal: BUN and serum uric acid levels elevation, hemolysis, hematuria, interstitial nephritis, acute hemoglobinuria, renal insufficiency, tubular necrosis, and acute renal failure
- Hypersensitivity Reactions: sore mouth, sore tongue, conjunctivitis, rash, urticaria, erythema multiforme including Stevens - Johnson syndrome, and others.
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Before the discovery and multiple studies on potent antibiotics such as Generic Rifadin based on the active ingredient called Rifampicin, tuberculosis, leprosy and many other bacterial illnesses were fatal. People suffered from incredibly painful diseases without a chance to survive. Fortunately, nowadays even if you hear a discouraging diagnosis, you should not despair or give up. Even taking into account that such medicines as Generic Rifadin are quite expensive, now everyone can afford them buying the medicine online. Online you can find its cheaper analogs sold under various registered brand names. However, first of all, you must consult your doctor and carefully study the instruction before using the medicine. Generic Rifadin is a potent drug able both to help you completely cure the disease and lead to the fatality if taken wrongly and without supervision.
Generic Rifadin: indications for use
This wide-spectrum medicine is used as a part of the complex therapy of various disorders such as Hansen's disease, legionella, tuberculosis, Meningococcal disease, and abscesses. The medicine physically blocs the synthesis of the bacteria RNA but the resistance of bacteria develops pretty quickly. Therefore, Generic Rifadin is mostly used as a part of combination therapy along with such drugs as pyrazinamide, isoniazid, ethambutol, and streptomycin. The listed drugs are also antibiotics that fight the same bacteria but through other mechanisms not allowing them to multiply and create resistance which would lead to an ineffective treatment.
Generic Rifadin dosage and form of issue
The drug is supplied in capsules and solution for intravenous injection. If the capsules can be taken by the patient at home without a direct participation of a medical worker simply preserving the dosage and recommendations, intravenous injections require hospitalization.
The daily dosage for a patient is calculated as follows: 10 milligrams per one kilogram of a patient’s body weight. The daily dose is taken once a day on an empty stomach not to reduce the efficacy of the medicine and should constitute not more than 600 mg of Rifampicin. Intravenous injections usually take around 30 minutes and the maximum daily dosage is the same as in the oral use of the medicine.
The medicine is supplied in 150 mg or 300 mg capsules or glass vials containing 600 milligrams of the active substance.
The medicine is prohibited to be taken in people with hypersensitivity to its main ingredient, rifampicin, or any other drug from the group of rifamycins. It is also not advised to combine Generic Rifadin with tipranavir, atazanavir, fosamprenavir, saquinavir, and darunavir. The medicine can significantly reduce the antiviral effect of the listed medicines or contribute to the development of viral resistance.
People with liver or kidney problems should also take the medicine carefully. It is advised to undergo a medical checkup before starting using the drug and do frequent blood tests to be sure that the medicine is not harming your health.
Possible side effects of Generic Rifadin
As any other medicine, Generic Rifadin can cause certain side effects from the gastrointestinal tract side, nervous system, endocrinal system (menstrual cycle disorder), cause blurred vision, contribute to significant liver or kidney malfunction, cause dermatological issues such as itching or rash in hypersensitivity, and others.
All of the side effects should be timely observed and necessary measures taken. They most commonly occur in an individual intolerance of the drug, overdose or broken and renowned treatment cycle without proper supervision.