Medical description: Tetracycline is a wide-spectrum antibacterial medicine used to treat over a hundred of various illnesses caused by almost all Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and anaerobic bacteria. The medicine is taken orally either in pills, capsules or suspension made from portioned powder. The maximum dosage of Tetracycline for adults is 4 mg a day, for children not younger than 8 years, it is not more than 0.5 mcg per kilogram of body weight. The medicine is contraindicated to pregnant women, people allergic to Tetracycline, and children younger than 8 years.
Synonyms: Alcyclin, Tetracyclin, Abramycin, Abricycline, Achromycin, Actisite, Amycin, Biocycline, Bristaciclin, Cefracycline, Ciclibion, Copharlan, Cytome, Democracin, Dumocyclin, Enterocycline, Hostacyclin, Lexacycline, Liquamycin, Micycline, Oletetrin, Omegamycin, Orlycycline, Polyotic, Resteclin, Retet, Robitet, Roviciclina, Solvocin, Tetrabon, Tetrachel, Tetrafil, Tetramed, Tetrex, Tsiklomitsin, Veracin
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Tetracycline is an antibiotic officially included in the World Health Organization Model List of Essential Medicines. The discovery of Tetracycline has boosted the creation of other antibiotics by altering the initial formula. Therefore, its discovery is considered the most significant in the history of antibiotics research and creation.
The medicine is a polyketide antibiotic found first as a natural product in 1945 and first appointed for the treatment of infection in 1948. It is effective in treatment of multiple bacterial infections. Therefore, it is considered a broad-spectrum antibiotic. It is produced by the Streptomyces genus of Actinobacteria, a type of Gram-positive bacteria with the high percentage of nitrogenous bases in the bacteria DNA.
Tetracycline is marketed in all countries. However, the names of the medicine vary: in the United States the medicine is sold as Emtet-500, Sumycin, Achromycin V, Panmycin. In other countries, for example, in Russia, it is called Tetracycline, in Canada – Achrocidin, Achromycin, and others. In Malaysia – Dhatracin, in Spain – Hortetracin. There are hundreds of names for Tetracycline. Some of them even remotely do not resemble the main substance name. In the internet, at online pharmacies, you can find these medicines searching for Generic Tetracycline. At online pharmacies, the medicine is available without a prescription while in the USA its legal status obliges pharmacies to release it only with a prescription.
Chemical properties of Tetracycline
The formula of the medicine is C22H24N2O8. Tetracycline is available as a yellow crystalline powder for the preparation of oral suspension. The same powder can be found in capsules of the drug. The name of the active substance is Tetracycline hydrochloride.
Mechanism of Tetracycline action
Tetracycline is a protein synthesis inhibitor. It prevents the charged aminoacyl-tRNA connection with the A site on the ribosome. Doing so, it keeps off new amino acids from the new peptide chains, so they cannot develop properly. The medicine does not affect the same processes in human cells and, therefore, is considered safe.
Pharmacokinetics of Tetracycline
Tetracycline is well but not completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Only around 65% of Tetracycline can be found in blood plasma after two-four hours of the medicine oral intake. Nevertheless, the transportation of Tetracycline in all tissues and fluids of the body is impeccable. After the intake, the medicine is transported to lungs, kidney, prostate, liver, brain, and bones. It can be found in synovial fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, mucosa of the maxillary sinus, bile, and sputum. The medicine is excreted in feces and primarily in urine. Therefore, the use of Tetracycline requires fully functioning and healthy kidneys.
Tetracycline supply form
The medicine can be purchased in form of 250 mg or 500 mg tablets or capsules and crystalline powder for oral suspension (syrup) preparation of 125 mg per 5 milliliters.
Indications for Tetracycline use
Tetracycline or the medicines based on the same active substance are used to treat a vast variety of infections and diseases caused by bacteria sensible to the drug components, such as urogenital system diseases including syphilis, gonorrhea, upper and lower airway diseases including pneumonia, tonsillitis, laryngitis, sinusitis, soft tissue infections including plague, conjunctivitis, typhus, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, intestinal amebiasis, brucellosis, rosacea, rickettsial pox, psittacosis, and yaws.
Tetracycline is also effective in some types of acne. The group of Tetracycline antibiotics is effective against almost all Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Currently, it is considered that the medicine is mostly effective against Chlamydia, Mycoplasma and Rickettsia phatogens and less effective against Proteus spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which show inherent resistance. Acquired resistance had also spread among various types of bacteria resulting in lesser efficiency of the medicine in the treatment of diseases caused by certain pathogens. Therefore, an effective treatment requires prior susceptibility tests in order for medics to determine whether Tetracycline will be suitable for a certain condition or a patient.
Besides the treatment of infections, Tetracycline is used to identify the bone growth when biopsy is appointed.
Dosages of Tetracycline
Tetracycline is taken orally with a large amount of water (a full glass). Adults are prescribed 0.25-0.5g 4 times a day or 0.5-1g every 12 hours. The dose over 4g a day is considered an overdose.
In acne, the dosage is from 0.1g to 0.15g a day in two intakes. In positive effect, the dosage is gradually decreased to 0.125-1g a day. Tetracycline should be used every other day or in divided courses.
In brucellosis, 0.1-0.15g are taken every 6 hours during 3-week-period.
In syphilis, 0.2 g should be taken every 6 hours within 15 days (in early syphilis) and within 30 days in late syphilis.
In uncomplicated gonorrhea, in the morning 1.5 g are taken and followed by 0.3 g every 6 hours within 4 days. The dosage per course should not exceed 9 grams of Tetracycline.
Chlamydia trachomatis-induced diseases such as uncomplicated urethral, rectal or endocervical infections are treated during a 7-day-course with 0.3g of Tetracycline taken 4 times a day.
The dosage of the medicine for children older than 8 years is 6.25-12.5mcg per kilogram of body weight every 6 hours or 12.5-25 mcg per kilogram of body weight with the interval of 12 hours.
Contraindications for Tetracycline use
Primarily, the medicine is contraindicated to people with increased sensitivity or allergy to the Tetracycline antibiotics. It is also prohibited in second and third trimesters of pregnancy and during breastfeeding period. Children under the age of 8 years should not be administered the medicine as well as people with leucopenia.
Patients with stomach ulcer or renal failure must take the medicine under medical supervision.
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The discovery of Tetracycline in 1945 is considered the most significant event in antibiotics history. The alteration of the chemical structure of the main active substance resulted in the creation of majority of contemporary broad-spectrum antibiotics. For the first time Tetracycline was used in 1948, currently, millions of people around the world are treated with the medicine. Whether they are suffering from a simple acne or life-threatening plague – Tetracycline solves the problem better than any other drug. Worth noting, however, that in different countries, the same medicine is sold under different brand names. The price of the medicine also differs from country to country according to the production costs, costs of clinical trials and government approvals as well as advertising. The legislation also varies, for example, in the USA you can buy it only with a prescription, while other countries do not prohibit selling of Tetracycline without a prescription.
When Generic Tetracycline is prescribed?
The antibiotic is effective in the treatment of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria including anaerobic bacteria that are most hard to eliminate. In some conditions doctors prefer to perform susceptibility tests before prescribing the drug to be sure that the pathogen causing the infection is sensitive to Tetracycline. But for majority of the infections that are known to be sensitive to it, it is prescribed without such tests. Such infections and diseases include: upper and lower respiratory tract infections, acne, uncomplicated urinary tract infections, plague, lime disease, gonorrhea, syphilis, conjunctivitis, and typhus.
Tetracycline is prescribed also to treat skin infections and even necrotizing wounds.
Dosages of Generic Tetracycline
In the majority of cases the recommended dosage for adults per day should not exceed 4 grams and is taken as either by 0.25-0.5g 4 times a day or 0.5-1g every 12 hours. Adults can use tablets, capsules or powder for preparation of syrup. For children older than 8 years, the dosage is calculated based on their weight. The amount of the medicine per kilogram of body weight is either 6.25 mcg or 12.5mcg of the active substance in form of suspension per kilogram. The dosage of 6.25 mcg is taken every 6 hours while 12.5mcg per kilogram of weight should be administered every 12 hours.
Patients with stomach ulcer or renal failure may require correction of the daily dosage. Some diseases and conditions, such as acne or syphilis, require specific dosages that differ from the general recommendations.
Tetracycline – contraindications
Though the medicine is considered relatively safe, it is not advised to be taken by pregnant women during second and third trimesters of the pregnancy and during breastfeeding as the medicine easily penetrates all the fluids in the body and can affect the fetus or the baby. It is also not recommended for children under the age of 8 years, and prohibited to people with allergy to any of the components of the drug.
Adverse effects of GenericTetracycline
The adverse effects of Tetracycline are similar to the ones of other antibiotics. The most common are headache, weakness, fatigue, and discomfort from digestive tract side.
Where to buy Generic Tetracycline?
If your doctor prescribes you to use the medicine, you can either spend your money at your local drugstore or opt for the better deal and buy Tetracycline online without a prescription and save a lot of money at the same time. If you chose to buy Tetracycline online, look for its cheaper but not less effective analogs to cut your expenses on it twice or even thrice.