Medical description: Trimethoprim is an antibiotic medicine used primarily for the treatment of urinary tract infections and illnesses within the competence of otolaryngologist. It is also used for prevention of pneumonia and bladder infections development in HIV positive patients.
The usual dosage of Trimethoprim for adults is 0.04-0.06g taken orally once day. The maximum daily dosage must not exceed 0.1 gram. Children are administered 2-3 mcg per one kilogram of body weight once a day.
The usual treatment course length is 10 days for urinary tract or respiratory tract infections. In HIV positive patients – 21 day of prevention therapy.
Synonyms: Contrimazole, S-trim, Abacin, Abaprim, Alprim, Bactin, Bactramin, Bactrimel, Baktar, Chemotrim, Co-trimoxazole, Comox, Cotrim, Drylin, Eusaprim, Fectrim, Gamazole, Gantanol, Gantaprim, Gantrim, Idotrim, Imexim, Instalac, Ipral, Kepinol, Laratrim, Lidaprim, Linaris, Methoprim, Metoxal, Microtrim, Monoprim, Monotrim, Nopil, Oraprim, Priloprim, Primosept, Primsol, Proloprim, Radonil, Septra, Septran, Septrin, Sigaprim, Simsinomin, Sinomin, Sulfamethalazole, Sulfamethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole, Sulfatrim, Sulfisomezole, Sulmeprim, Sulphamethalazole, Sulphisomezole, Sulprim, Sumetrolim, Supracombin, Suprim, Syraprim, Teleprim, Tiempe, Tmp-Ratiopharm, Trib, Trigonyl, Trimanyl, Trimesulf, Trimethioprim, Trimetoprim, Trimexazole, Trimogal, Trimopan, Trimpex, Triprim, Unitrim, Uretrim, Urobak, Uroplus, Veltrim, Wellcoprim
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Trimethoprim is an inexpensive synthetic antibiotic medicine first used in 1962. Federal Drug Administration approved the medicine in 1973 to be used in combination with sulfamethoxazole. As an independent drug, Trimethoprim was approved in 1980. The medicine is included in the WHO (World Health Organization) List of Essential Medicines and is primarily used to treat urogenital system infections. The use of the medicine significantly increased in the late 1970s following the discovery that sulfamethoxazole, the basic substance of co-trimoxazole used in combination with Trimethoprim, is toxic to the bone marrow. However, the medicine is still used as the tests show that bacteria commonly starts to develop resistance to Trimethoprim when the medicine is used as a single antibiotic drug for the treatment.
The medicine is relatively cheap and can be found under different brand names. For example, using the generic versions of the medicine, the treatment course of 10 days in the United State may cost only about 20 Dollars or around 0.40 USD per dose. In the USA, the registered names for Trimethoprim are Trimpex, Proloprim, Primsol. In Russia - Trimetoprim, Ipral, Trimopan. In other countries the medicine is marketed under different names. You can find its analogs online looking for “Generic Trimethoprim”.
Trimethoprim - Mechanism of action
Trimethoprim prevents the production of a chemical agent, tetrahydrofolic acid, needed by human cells and bacteria cells to produce proteins. The prevention occurs due to the inhibition of the enzyme transforming tetrahydrofolic acid to dihydrofolic acid. Though it impacts the human enzyme too, its impact on them is a hundred times lower than that on the bacterial one what makes the medicine safe.
When Trimethoprim is prescribed
The medicine shows the greatest efficiency in the treatment of urinary tract infections, including acute cystitis and bladder infection induced by the following pathogens: Aeromonas sp., Burkholderia cepacia, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter sp., Escherichia coli sp., Haemophilus influenza, Klebsiella sp., Morganella sp., Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Providencia sp., Salmonella sp., Serratia sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, groups A, B, C, G of Streptococcus, Yersinia sp.
The optimal treatment plan must be based on the susceptibility study to be sure that the disease is caused by one of the pathogens sensitive to the medicine.
Pharmacokinetics of Trimethoprim
The bioavailability (the amount of unchanged medicine absorbed and reached systemic circulation) of the medicine is from 90% to 100%. The blood plasma protein binding is 44%. The number indicates the efficacy of the medicine – the lower the percentage is the more effective is the medicine.
After the intake, the medicine is mostly found in bile as it is metabolized through the liver. Trimethoprim is excreted mostly with urine – 50-60% percents of it leave the body through the kidneys. With the feces is excreted only 4%.
The release form of Trimethoprim
The medicine is supplied in form of tablets of 0.02 grams and 0.1 grams, syrup with the dosage of 1 ml containing 0.01 grams of the active substance, and powder for suspension preparation.
Prescribed dosages of Trimethoprim
For the treatment of adults, Trimethoprim is prescribed to be taken 0.04-0.06 grams orally one time a day. The maximum daily dose is considered 0.1 gram. Children over a year old are prescribed to be administered 2-3 micrograms of the medicine per one kilogram of body weight one time a day. The usual length of the treatment course for urinary tract infections is ten days.
The treatment course of prophylaxis of cystitis in adults can take from six weeks to six months during which Trimethoprim is taken orally before bedtime in the dosage of 0.1 grams.
The medicine is also prescribed to patients diagnosed with HIV and AIDS to prevent pneumonia in the dose of 0.015 grams per kilogram of body weight orally in three intakes during the day for the 21-day- treatment-course.
For the patients with kidney failure, the usual dosages are cut in half. In hepatic failure, the medicine is not advised to be taken.
When and how to take Trimethoprim
Trimethoprim should be taken orally on an empty stomach, preferably at least one hour before meal or two hours after a meal. In case the use of the medicine causes indigestion, it can be taken in time of meal; however, it will lower its effect. The best result of the treatment takes place when the medicine is contained in the body during the treatment course in an identical amount. It can be achieved by taking the medicine at the same time every day and avoiding longer or shorter intervals between the intakes.
The length of the treatment course should be observed even if symptoms of the diseases the patient suffers from seem to lessen. In case of early treatment course termination, the bacteria may grow back and develop a resistance to Trimethoprim so the further treatment with the antibiotic will be ineffective and a new treatment course would need to be appointed.
Contraindications for Trimethoprim use
The medicine is contraindicated to people with hypersensitivity to its main ingredient or any other of its components. It is also contraindicated to people with liver and kidney insufficiency, folic acid deficiency, and during the pregnancy, especially in the first trimester.
Adverse effects of Trimethoprim
The most common side effects of Trimethoprim are nausea (often occurs with high doses), skin rash, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, general feeling of discomfort or illness, fatigue, headaches, anemia. In patients with diabetes, the drug may cause significant sugar levels decrease, and others.
Interaction of Trimethoprim with other medicines
When prescribed to use Trimethoprim, make sure to tell your doctor about all the medicines you take or plan to take during the treatment course. The medicine is contraindicated to be used at the same time with Dofetilide or its analogs and some other medicines as it may cause serious damage to a patient’s health.
Find out how to use Trimethoprim for urinary tract infections and buy it online twice cheaper than your local pharmacies offer.
Antibiotic drug Trimethoprim was first synthesized in 1962. It was previously used in the composition of co-trimoxazole, but due to toxicity tests that shown the negative effect of the combined antibiotic to the bone tissue, since 1980 Trimethoprim has been used as an independent medicine. Nowadays, Trimethoprim is mostly used for the treatment of urinary infections caused both by Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. If the pathogen causing skin or respiratory tract infection is also susceptible to the medicine effect, Trimethoprim can be also prescribed.
The medicine is manufactured by multiple pharmaceutical companies and, therefore, can be found under different brand names. Looking for the medicine online, you can encounter such names as Actin, Adrenol, Aksotran, Bacticel, Biaprim, Bitrim, Daiprim, Flamback, and others.
The medicine is considered relatively cheap. For example, a treatment course of 10 days for mild infections with Trimethoprim in the United States costs around 30 Dollars. Generic Trimethoprim versions of the medicine that can be found online are even cheaper while are not less effective.
When Trimethoprim is prescribed?
If you have an uncomplicated infection of urinary tract, for example, cystitis, bladder infection you will be most likely prescribed Trimethoprim. The medicine is also prescribed for the treatment of otitis media, sinusitis, and other diseases treated by otolaryngologist if the susceptibility tests show that the infection is caused by bacteria sensible to the active substance of the medicine.
Generic Trimethoprim is also used as a preventive measure for pneumonia and bladder infection development in HIV-patients. Some types of skin infections, including acne, are also included in the indications for medicine use.
What dosage of Generic Trimethoprim should be taken?
As any other medicine, Trimethoprim dosage is selected individually though there are certain general dosages according to the conditions. For the treatment of urinary tract infections adults are advised to take 0.04-0.06 grams of the medicine orally with a full glass of water once a day. The daily dose must not exceed 0.1 gram.
For children older than one year, Trimethoprim is usually administered in dosage equaling 2-3 micrograms of the medicine in form of oral suspension per one kilogram of body weight once a day.
The most common treatment course length for uncomplicated urinary tract infections is ten days. The treatment course of cystitis takes from 6 weeks to six months. The medicine is taken orally prior to sleep in the dosage of 0.1 grams.
For the prevention of pneumonia in HIV-patients, Trimethoprim is prescribed to be taken by 0.015 grams per kilogram of body weight daily in three intakes. The length of prevention course is 21 day.
Patients with kidney problem should take a reduced dosage of the medicine and use it only under a doctor’s supervision.
When Generic Trimethoprim is contraindicated?
The medicine is contraindicated to people with increased sensitivity to the medicine which may result in severe adverse reactions, patients with severe kidney and liver failure, pregnant women, and children aged less than one year.
What are side effects of Generic Trimethoprim?
The medicine may make you nauseous, cause skin rush, fatigue, headaches, and anemia. Patients with diabetes may experience sudden blood sugar decreases.
Where to buy Generic Trimethoprim?
Trimethoprim is sold only with a prescription on the territory of the United States. However, it can be bought online if you do not have a prescription or the prescription you have has already expired. Buying Trimethoprim you can also significantly save.